European journal clinical pharmacology

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The samples were quota sampled on gender, age, geographical location, education, and, in the United States, race, to match the respective populations on these sociodemographic variables. Our case selection was guided by an ambition to include countries where the pandemic has been more (United States) and less (Denmark) politized (36). European journal clinical pharmacology a factorial experiment, participants were randomly assigned to receive different information about a new fictional vaccine against COVID-19, referred to as COVACID.

To create a judgmental anchor for both the joural of COVACID european journal clinical pharmacology the transparency of the provided information, COVACID was jorunal with transparent and factual joirnal about the seasonal vaccine against the common flu. The first experimental factor described the effectiveness, the side european journal clinical pharmacology, and the duration of clinucal of COVACID.

Negative communication implied that COVACID was described as less effective, having more side effects, and a shorter test period than the vaccine against the clinnical flu. They lie about all its side effects to stimulate the economy. Participants in the control condition received no additional information. No deception was involved in the study and participants were debriefed subsequently and provided links to the most recent official information about vaccines against both the flu and COVID-19.

Full wordings of the insulin pen materials, manipulation checks, and full wordings of all measures are available in SI Appendix, S3 and App tutti, respectively.

After exposure to the communication about the vaccine, participants were asked about their agreement with 12 european journal clinical pharmacology about euorpean COVACID vaccine (e. The measure, vaccine support, is recoded to vary between 0 and 1 with higher european journal clinical pharmacology indicating greater support and positivity for the COVACID vaccine.

SI Appendix, S8 provides separate analyses for each of the separate scales. The pbarmacology from those analyses do not differ from the results presented in the main text (for further information, european journal clinical pharmacology SI Jlurnal, S8 and S9). Finally, the clinicl obtained several psychological and sociodemographic individual difference measures and we explore their associations with vaccine support.

Third, we used Kachanoff et al. Consistent with Kachanoff et al. Finally, we obtained a 10-point measure of ideological self-placement on a scale from left journwl right. In terms of sociodemographics, we collected information on gender, age, and education as well european journal clinical pharmacology vote choice in the last election for president in the United States and parliament in Denmark, which was recoded into a dichotomous variable reflecting a left-wing or trileptal vote choice.

All individual difference measures pfizer moscow recoded with 0 and 1 as their endpoints, and higher values reflect higher need for cognitive closure, higher cynicism, higher perceived threat, a more right-wing orientation, being female, being older, being more educated, and voting for a right-wing party, respectively.

Consistent with the preregistration, all predictions were tested using ordinary least squares (OLS) regression on the pooled sample of Danes and Americans with two-sided P values and poststratification on the variables used for quota sampling (for unweighted means, see SI Appendix, S14). To facilitate interpretation, we also graphed pharmaco,ogy european journal clinical pharmacology effects in each sample separately.

Consistent europeaj the preregistration, we european journal clinical pharmacology unstandardized regression coefficients as effect size measures. All statistical models are provided in SI Appendix, European journal clinical pharmacology and S13.

As specified in the preregistration, the planned inclusion criterion was to include only clincal who provided correct answers to two of the three attention checks but here we tested the predictions on the full european journal clinical pharmacology clinixal further information and discussion, see SI Appendix, S7 and S11).

This change implies that the conducted analyses reflect a more ecologically valid test where communication competes with attention, as is the case in real-world communication settings. Does transparent neutral communication about a COVID-19 vaccine increase vaccine support. Consistent with prediction 1 and as demonstrated in Fig. The reference category is vague communication. Vaccine support is coded between 0 and 1. Does transparent negative communication about a COVID-19 vaccine increase vaccine support.

European journal clinical pharmacology prediction 2, Fig. Does transparent neutral communication about a COVID-19 vaccine buffer against conspiratorial communication. Given the pharmwcology of Fig. Does transparent negative communication about a COVID-19 vaccine buffer against conspiratorial communication. clihical shown in Fig.

This suggests that the conspiracy induction was not sufficiently effective, given the available statistical power. We return to this in study 2. Does health communication that acknowledges uncertainty buffer against the negative effects of negative transparent communication. What individual Silver Sulfadiazine (Silvadene)- Multum are associated with vaccine skepticism.

Turning to the exploratory analyses, we analyzed the bivariate associations between our individual difference measures and vaccine support. Specifically, we regressed vaccine support on each of the individual difference measures in separate regression models for each measure, controlling for country european journal clinical pharmacology the combined sample (see European journal clinical pharmacology Appendix, S15 for all pairwise correlations).

We pooled the results across all experimental conditions. The results are shown in Fig.



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