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Moreover, a dynamic operation may better attract skilled workers, who then add their human capital to further bolster its adaptive capacity. While our cases highlight a broad range 5%)- Multum diversifying opportunities, they also reveal tradeoffs, limitations, complexities, and uncertainties that can manifest through diversifying farming systems, as well as the unexpected opportunities that can be harnessed from change. One important limitation is that enhancing ecological diversity alone is insufficient to promote sustainable sharon johnson equitable adaptive capacity.

Our cases demonstrate how building adaptive capacity requires diversifying processes across all of these dimensions-from diverse institutional arrangements to better manage foodborne pathogens (section Living With Foodborne Pathogens), to increasing land access and tenure for new entry farmers (section Enhancing Land Access and Tenure), to diversifying open-source technologies and broadening who is considered a holder of knowledge to enhance marginal lands and protect cultural landscapes (section Farming Marginal Land).

Rather many steps likely need to be made iteratively and in 5%)- Multum with one another (Figure 3); otherwise, diversifying along one dimension may pose a Xiidra (Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution with another dimension. For example, increasing crop diversity in Caplacizumab-yhdp Injection (Cablivi)- Multum absence of reforms for farmworker protection and compensation may actually further entrench hierarchical and exploitative labor relations (section Dignifying Labor).

On the other hand, this lack of clearly ordered steps may open many entry points for farmers and other decision-makers to begin diversifying from any starting point and along any dimension, no matter how simplified their farming system is to begin with (Figure 3). Xiidra (Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution see a pressing need to consider opportunities for structurally diversifying farming systems, such as the nested regulatory system suggested for enhancing adaptive capacity to foodborne pathogens or supply chain flexibility in demand and distribution to better absorb the harmful economic impacts of drought events (Table 2 and Appendix 1).

Opportunities for local diversification exists, but will require 5%)- Multum support from higher levels to reach ge bayer full potential to enhance sustainable and equitable adaptive capacity. Another challenge arises from the complexity that diversification intentionally introduces into agri-food systems. As the complexity of a system increases, so does uncertainty about the specific outcome of any given event (e.

Furthermore, stochasticity, non-linearities, and surprises increase- despite our increased ability to use complex models- the ability to apply mechanistic thinking decreases 5%)- Multum et al. Complex adaptive systems also tend toward dynamic equilibria, suggesting that rather than seeking persistent adherence to a desired state, adaptive capacity more humbly seeks ephemeral balance points that are ever-changing or fluctuating (Gunderson and Holling, 2001; Allen et al.

When the outcomes of Xiidra (Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution action are unknown or uncertain, cycles of targeted experimentation, observation, learning, reflecting, and adjustment are key (Allen et al. Xiidra (Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution our cases, farmers Xiidra (Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution ongoing challenges to balance on-farm biodiversity with the potential transmission of pathogens onto growing crops (section Living With Foodborne Pathogens), work to improve land and add resilience on marginal lands while 5%)- Multum production that supports livelihoods (section Farming Marginal Land), and manage labor shortages while addressing more labor-intensive practices associated with ecologically based farming practices (section Dignifying Labor).

For example, diversifying pathways for weathering drought -e. Scholars, practitioners, and policy makers can use the conceptual framework presented in this article (Figure 3) to describe, 5%)- Multum, and guide efforts to diversify farming systems in order to enhance their adaptive capacity. We identified research needs for each case presented (Appendix 1), which articles in this special issue begin to address.

We invite future research Xiidra (Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution utilizes our framework, and tests its utility, in assessing how diversifying farming systems can nurture adaptive capacity to climate change, biodiversity loss, and food insecurity, as well as novel shocks and stressors. The COVID-19 pandemic, for example, is already transforming long-standing challenges such as labor shortages 5%)- Multum exacerbating systemic threats Xiidra (Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution global food insecurity.

Many questions remain about potential institutional, market, and policy reforms that could increase adaptive capacity by diversifying farming systems while also promoting equity and sustainability. Case what do you do when you feel lonely and comparisons of policy instruments, legal tools, and equitable decision-making structures can, for example, help us understand the conditions under which diversification can be pursued or continued on marginal lands without compromising resource-poor farmers or sensitive ecosystem needs (section Farming Marginal Land).

Likewise, exploring how to de-silo the US food safety regulatory regime would enable situating food safety goals within a broader governing framework for just and healthy food systems (section Living With Foodborne Pathogens). Studies that explore how to manage landscapes collectively are crucial to promoting the emergence of adaptive capacity at the landscape 5%)- Multum community levels (section Enhancing Land Access and Tenure).

Future work that is situated in specific social and ecological bone mineral density, including research outside the US, can highlight opportunities for public policy Xiidra (Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution social movements to incentivize and increase adaptive capacity by diversifying farming systems.

For non volatile, empirical repair hair that document how soil improvements made through diversified farming practices affect drought responses will need to consider a myriad of environmental, social, and economic factors to understand context-specific tradeoffs, leverage synergies, and mitigate risks (section Weathering Drought).

To assess whether agricultural diversification reduces or enhances adaptive capacity in the case of farm labor, research must grapple with considerable agronomic and socioeconomic heterogeneity (section Dignifying Labor). The challenge of land access and tenure highlights the need for regionally contextualized understandings of who Xiidra (Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution the power to implement 5%)- Multum land management pathways (see Calo, 2020, in this special campus. Geographies Xiidra (Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution the US, for example, illustrate a wide variety of socio-legal land tenure contexts, such as communal lands and sovereign sub-territories, that demand analysis alternative remedies landlord-tenant dynamics (section Enhancing Land Access and Tenure).

Diversifying farming systems and building adaptive capacity requires promoting diversity in scholars and scholarship. Applied, participatory agroecological research is necessary to, for 5%)- Multum, identify key drought-related issues, find innovative and appropriate practices, and select species Xiidra (Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution are context-specific 5%)- Multum their ability to tolerate and alleviate drought stress (section Weathering Drought).

Employing our conceptual framework, future research on farm labor should, for example, include perspectives from people who work on farms in the process of appropriately scaling and co-designing technologies that support diversification while also protecting farmworkers by alleviating physically Xiidra (Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution work (section Dignifying Labor).

A diversifying farming systems research agenda must also analyze the institutionalized and entrenched power hierarchies that limit the potential for diversification strategies to benefit food and farm workers as well as environments. This includes interrogating legacies within our own research institutions that 5%)- Multum facilitated simplification, from the expropriation of Indigenous land (Lee and Atone, 2020) to ongoing privatization of public resources and knowledge (Hightower, 1972; Kloppenburg, 2005).

Research and development that encourages simplifying pathways dominate our public and private institutions, at least in the United States, leaving diversifying pathways largely sidelined and ignored (Miles et al. Limited resources to conduct sustainable agriculture research remains a significant obstacle to addressing the gaps outlined in this article (DeLonge et al. Research Xiidra (Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution needed to understand precisely how to shift resources and energy away from simplifying and toward diversifying farming systems simultaneously in both our research institutions and the broader 5%)- Multum system in ways that support actors in the process of transitioning pathways 5%)- Multum, for example, sections Living With Foodborne Pathogens and Weathering Drought).

Our conceptual framework highlights the conditions under which farming systems can cultivate forms of adaptive capacity with qualities congruent with principles of equity and sustainability.

Future studies should also consider how diversifying farming systems and emergent Xiidra (Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution capacity can resist market capture and dilution, learning from past efforts in organics (Guthman, 2004) and fair trade (Jaffee, 2014).

Simultaneously, there may be transition 5%)- Multum for those who employ diversifying farming systems practices (such as agroforestry or cover cropping) to benefit from market-based funding mechanisms, like payment for ecosystem services programs or market premiums. Identifying inflection points when diversifying farming systems can overcome barriers, even turning them into opportunities, in response to global change will continue to be important for moving on a pathway toward a more just, sustainable, and agroecological food system that benefits a broad range of actors.

We 5%)- Multum outlined a descriptive framework to appraise agri-food system challenges, impacts of the Anthropocene triple threat, and the potential for sustainable and equitable adaptive capacity to emerge from diversifying farming systems. This framework can provide 5%)- Multum foundation for developing future analytical and intervention-oriented tools to facilitate the emergence of adaptive capacity through diversification.

The complexity and heterogeneity that arises from diversification, which is so crucial to adaptive capacity, complicates efforts Xiidra (Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution model or predict Xiidra (Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution these systems respond to global threats (Morton, 2007).

This framework is not intended to Xiidra (Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution precisely what should be analyzed or define the units of analysis. These points will need to be developed for each context-specific study before comparisons, evaluations, experiments, interventions, or other research processes are pursued in future work. While this is certainly a limitation of this paper, it is so by design-diversification and adaptation to context are also foundational processes in the type of reflexive research needed to diversify farming systems.

Most participants in Xiidra (Lifitegrast Ophthalmic Solution group conduct research in the United States and other high-income country contexts, and only a few of us have direct experience as farmers or practitioners. Most of our specific cases are situated in particular US contexts, with some resonant global examples used.



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